Tag Archives: Common Craft Terms

Eyelets, Nail Heads & Brads

Supplies Needed

Eyelet Hole Punch, Regular Paper Hole Punch or Long Reach Hole Punch: To make a hole in paper for the eyelet to fit into. It’s best to match the size of the hole punch to the size of the eyelet being set. For brads most hole sizes will work, but don’t make the hole bigger than the front of the brad.
Eyelet Setter*: Tool that will crimp back of eyelet to hold it in place. There are different sizes of eyelets and you should have the right size setter for the eyelet.
Small Hammer or Mallet: To crimp back of eyelet when used with eyelet setter.
Small Mat: Many feel the best result is gotten if there is a mat between the eyelet to be set and a flat surface.
Eyelets: Available in 3 basic sizes in every color imaginable. Eyelets can be traditional (round hole) or as a specialty in shapes like stars, hearts, flowers and more.
Brads: Available in a variety of sizes, shapes and colors. Has 2 prongs on back.
Nailheads: Available in a variety of sizes, shapes and colors. Has several prongs on back.
*There is an all in one eyelet hole and eyelet setter tool available.

Step-by-Step

Eyelets

  1. Punch hole where you want to place an eyelet.
  2. Slip eyelet into hole. Remember to place the eyelet so the back of the eyelet is coming out to the back/wrong side of your project.
  3. Place project on mat. Place eyelet setter so that sits on top of the back of the eyelet.
  4. Tap the top of the eyelet setter firmly with your hammer or mallet. Tap until back of eyelet is flush. Keep in mind that eyelets vary in metal firmness. One brand may need only one tap while another may need 2-3.

Brads

  1. Punch hole where you want to place a brad. Make sure hole is smaller than brad front.
  2. Place brad into hole with right side on top and prongs to the back of your page or project.
  3. Separate prongs and spread flush with paper.
  4. Brads can help you bring movement within your design. For example attach arms or legs with a brad and the arm or leg can move.

Nail Heads

  1. Gently push nail head down into paper, piercing the paper with nail head prongs. This is easiest if you use a cushion or self-healing mat.
  2. Turn paper over and gently push prongs down with a wood craft stick or other flat tool. Be careful, prongs are sharp.

Woodworking Jargon

Arris: the sharp corner formed by the meeting of two adjacent surfaces of a board
Astragal: narrow, half-round molding
Backlash: slack or play in the adjustment mechanism of the plane
Baller: tool used to round over the end of a dowel
Barefaced Joint: joint in which one or more of its shoulders are eliminated
Bead: traditional decoration often used with a tongue-and- groove joint to hide the gap between the boards
Bedding Angle: angle at which the frog or bed of the plane holds the plane iron
Bench Planes: planes used to smooth the face and edges of a board
Bevel: angle other than 90 degrees; inside surface that is sharpened on a plane blade, chisel, or other cutting tool; tool used to mark angles; it consists of a stock or handle and an adjustable blade and the edge of the stock rests against the edge of a board and the blade rests across the face: also called a bevel square or sliding T bevel
Bow: distortion in a board that causes the face to curve from end to end. If you place the face of a bowed board on a flat surface the center of the board will rest on the surface while the ends are above the surface
Block Planes: small planes that fit into the palm of your hand used primarily for trimming
Block Cushion Grainer: wood-graining tool used to mechanically reproduce wood grains; it has a rubber face that is covered with concentric, semi-circular grooves
Boxing: process of adding a new piece of wood to the front of the mouth of the plane
Burnished surface: surface that has a smooth, polished look
Cabinet scraper: scraper with a cast-iron body that holds a scraper blade
Camber: slight convexity, arch, or curvature
Cambium: layer of cells just beneath the bark of a tree where new growth occurs
Carcass: basic box or frame of a cabinet
Chalking: dusty film of pigments left on the surface of weathered paint
Chamfer: beveled cut on an edge
Cheek: part of the joint that is parallel with the face or edge
Clearance angle: angle formed between the work and the underside of the cutting edge of the blade
Closed-grain: wood with no easily discernible pore structure; does not require filling to achieve a smooth finish
Combination Plane: any plane that can be used for more than one job
Common Pitch: refers to a plane iron held at 45 degrees to the work by the frog or bed
Compass Plane: plane used to make convex or concave shapes
Corner: on a board the corner is the place where the face, edge and end meet
Crook: distortion in the edge of a board that causes the edge to curve from end to end; when the edge is placed on a flat surface the center of the edge will touch the surface while the ends are above the surface
Cove: concave molding cut into the edge of the board
Crosscutting: process of cutting a board at approximately a right angle to the grain direction
Cutting Angle: angle formed between the work and the top of the blade
Dado: flat bottomed recess cut into the face of a board across the grain
Dress: improve or smooth the surface of the wood
Dust Nibs: tiny bumps in a finished surface caused by dust particles landing on the wet finish
Edges: the narrowest surfaces of a board that are approximately parallel with the grain direction
Edge-Grain Wood: term applied to quarter-sawed wood, particularly softwood
Ends: narrowest surfaces of a board that are approximately perpendicular with the grain direction
End Grain: wood surface that has been cut at a 90″ angle to the length of the cells, often the end of a piece of lumber; end grain absorbs finishing material to a greater degree than other wood surfaces because open-cell cavities are exposed at the surface
Face: the four surfaces of a board that are approximately parallel to the grain; or the two widest surfaces of a board also called sides; or the widest surface of a board with the least number of defects is sometimes called the best face or select face
Filler Stick: wax-based wood putty in stick form available in a variety of colors and frequently used to fill nail holes after a finish has been applied
Fillet: flat section on a molding used to separate a section of the molding
Filling: process of packing the pores of open-grained wood with filler to create a smooth surface.
Fish Eyes: small, round depressions in a finished surface; frequently caused by contamination of the finish with silicones
Flat: finished surface with no gloss
Fluting: decorative molding that is frequently used as a decoration on table legs
Fore Plane: plane about 18 inches long used to surface or dress rough lumber
Grain: orientation of the fibers in the wood, or a term used to describe the visible pattern of pores and growth rings on a board; pattern produced by the annual rings in a piece of wood; also refers to the direction of the wood fibers
Grinding: coarse wearing away of a softer material by the abrasive actions of a harder material
Grit: abrasive particles used in coated abrasives
Groove: a flat-bottomed recess cut into the face of a board with the grain
Gutter Plane: plane with a convex sole and iron that can be used to make large architectural moldings such as the cove molding
Hand Scraper: simple scraper that consists of a steel blade that is held in your hands
Hardwood: wood derived from broad-leafed trees; has no relation to the actual hardness of the wood
Heartwood: wood from the center portion of the log. It is generally darker and more decay-resistant than the younger sapwood
High spots: areas of the board that are thicker or wider than the rest of the board
Honing: giving a keen edge to a plane iron
Jack Plane: a plane 12 to 17 inches long that is used to remove saw marks from lumber and cut down high spots
Jointer: a plane 22 to 36 inches long that is designed to make an edge straight and square with the face of the board
Jointing: making an edge straight and square with the face of the board
Kerf: a cut made in a board with a saw.
Knot: the intersection between a limb and the trunk of a tree that shows up in sawed lumber as a round, oval, or spike shaped area that is darker and harder than the surrounding wood
Length: the dimension of a board running parallel with the grain
Match Planes: planes used to make tongue-and-groove joints; these planes are used in pairs: one plane cuts the tongue and the other plane cuts the groove
Microbevels: small, secondary bevels at the tip of the plane iron
Mill Marks: marks left by a planer that give the surface of a board a wavy appearance
Mitre Joint: a joint that is cut at an angle; when two boards meet at 90 degrees, the mitre angle is 45 degree
Mortise and Tenon Joint: a joint in which a projection called a tenon on one board fits into a pocket called a mortise in the other board
Ogee: a molding with an S-shaped profile
Open Grain: the appearance of wood with large, visible pores that must be filled with paste filler to achieve a smooth surface; there are two types of open-grained wood: ring-porous and diffuse-porous: ring-porous woods like oak and ash have large pores at the beginning of each annual ring and diffuse porous wood like Philippine mahogany have large pores evenly distributed throughout the wood
Particle Board: a man-made reconstituted wood product that is made from very small wood chips or particles bonded together with glue under heat and pressure
Patina: the condition of a wood and its finish that develops over time; it is characterized by a smooth, worn surface and darkening of the wood; also includes the build-up of waxes and oils that have been applied to wood over time and the scars and marks that are acquired through use
Pointer: a tool used to taper the end of a dowel.
Pores: small openings in the surface of a board
PSI: Pounds per Square Inch; a way to measure the pressure of compressed air
Quarter-Sawed: wood that has been cut so that the annual rings form an angle of 45″ to 90″ with the surface; also called edge-grain, vertical-grain, or quarter-sawn
Quirk: the small groove that defines the edges of the bead
Radius Plane: a plane used to round or chamfer the edges of a board
Raised Grain: a condition that occurs when water causes wood fibers to swell so that some stand above the surface of the board
Rake Angle: the angle formed between the top of the cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the work surface
Rank Setting: the setting of a plane iron (blade) that will make a heavy cut
Reed: a series of beads cut side by side
Ripping: the process of cutting a board approximately parallel to the grain.
Rotary-Cut: wood that is cut by rotating a log against a fixed knife to produce a continuous sheet
Rounder: a tool used to make dowels or round stock
Router Plane: a plane used to smooth the bottom of a recess, which is a cut indentation in a piece of wood
Sandpaper: a coated abrasive with a paper backing
Sapwood: The new wood near the outside of a tree; generally lighter in color and more prone to decay than heartwood which is in the center of a log
Sash planes: a special moulding plane used to make windows
Scraper: a tool used for the final smoothing of wood
Sharpening Angle: the angle that you hold the blade at while you hone it on a whetstone
Shooting Boards: boards with straight, true edges that are used to guide the plane
Shoulder: the part of the joint that is cut 90 degrees to the face or edge of the board; a joint only has a shoulder when that part of the board that fits into a joint must be thinner or narrower than the rest of the board
Sides: the two widest surfaces of a board, also called faces
Siphon-Feed Gun: a spray gun that uses atmospheric pressure to deliver liquid from the cup to the nozzle
Skew: to set something at an angle
Slipstone: small whetstone that is rounded or tapered
Smooth Plane: plane 9 or 10 inches long used to smooth the surface of a board,
Softwood: wood produced by trees that have needles rather than broad leaves
Stick: the board that the moulding is cut into
Striking: the process of cutting mouldings
Stopped: a cut or joint that ends before the edge or end of a board. For example, a stopped dado ends before the front edge of the board.
Stropping: process sometimes used when sharpening a plane blade in which a piece of leather that is impregnated with a fine abrasive is used to make the cutting edge very sharp
Tack Rag: piece of cheesecloth that has been treated so that it attracts dust
Tampico: natural filament derived from plants in the cactus family; it is resistant to chemicals and is used primarily in brushes used to apply chemical stains
Tannin: acid found in wood; it forms different-colored compounds when it reacts with certain chemicals; most chemical stains depend on a reaction with the tannin in wood
Taper: gradual angle cut on one or more faces of a board
Tear-Out: condition that occurs when the grain of a board changes direction and the plane blade starts to chip the wood
Temper: the correct heat treatment of a tool’s metal, to make it stay sharp longer
Tongue And Groove Joint: a two-part joint in which a projection on one board called a tongue fits into a groove on the other board
Tuning: the process of adjusting all of the working parts of a plane to their optimum positions and removing all imperfections in the casting left from the manufacturing process
Turning: piece of wood that has been shaped on a lathe
Twist: a distortion in a board that results in the ends of a board not being parallel. When the face of a twisted board is placed on a flat surface, one corner of the board will be lifted off the surface.
Universal Plane: any plane that can be used with cutters of different sizes
Veneer: a thin sheet of wood; face veneers are usually made from expensive wood species and applied over cheaper wood’s core; veneers are made from inexpensive woods like fir and are used for the inner plies in plywood; veneers may be produced by rotary process, slicing or sawing
Warp: any distortion in the shape of a board caused by changes in the moisture content of the wood
Water Stain: a clear, permanent aniline dye stain that uses water as its solvent; it will raise the grain of the wood
Wet Or Dry Sandpaper: sandpaper that uses waterproof glue to attach the abrasive particles to a water-resistant paper backing
Whetstones: abrasive stones used to sharpen edge tools
Whitewood: wood that has not yet been finished
Wood Putty: a doughy product used to fill nail holes and defects in wood.

Wood Finishes and Finishing Jargon

Adhesion: the property causing one material to stick to another
Barrier Coat: a coat applied which separates the substrate from contact with the topcoats
Bleeding: when a dye or color absorbs through to the top layer; this is due to a common solvency of the topcoat and the dye
Bloom: a bluish haze of a film usually caused by insufficient drying time of the oil stain before top-coating
Blushing: a white, milky cast in a film which is caused by trapping moisture into the film; blushing can be prevented and eliminated by slowing down the drying of the coating by adding a blush retarder
Blush Retarder: a reducer with slower drying properties
Body: the thickness of viscosity of the coating while in liquid form
Bond: the adhesion of or ability of two items to stick to one another
Bridge: when a finish forms a layer over a crack or void
Coat: the act of applying a coating to a surface
Coating: any material applied to a surface leaving a protective layer on that surface
Cold Checking: the cracking of a finish due to exposure to cold temperatures
Crawling: when a coating applied tends to flow away from areas leaving them uncoated; this is usually caused by grease or oil contamination of the surface to be coated
De-Laminate: the separation of layers due to lack of adhesion
Distressing: fly speck spotting (and/or other age marks like hammering) in the finished surface or on the substrate
Dye: a coloring material that dissolves in a system very transparent and not as color fast as a pigment
Dry Hard: the elapsed time at which a coating has reached its optimum hardness
Fading: the loss of color due to exposure to sunlight
Fast to Light: a color which is not significantly affected by exposure to sunlight
Finish: general term referring to the final protective coat done to add life to the piece painted that can be applied by brush or spray
Fish Eye: pock marks or craters that show up on finished surface when silicone is present
Flash point: the temperature at which a material will ignite when exposed to a source of ignition
Flat or Matte: a dull finish with little light reflection; non-glossy
Flood: the act of very heavily applying a coating to the substrate
Flow: the smoothing and leveling out of a coating
Glaze: an oil based pigment which is applied between lacquer coats to accent or give a graining effect
Gloss: the shininess or reflectability of a surface
Holiday: an uncoated area of a coated surface usually missed unintentionally
Incompatible: used in reference to coatings and/or stains that are not capable of being mixed with one another
Leveling: the act of applying a coat which will smooth out a previously rough coat
Opaque/Opacity: the degree of hiding of a pigmented coating. The opposite of transparent.
Orange Peel: a rough surface of a film similar in appearance to the skin of an orange
Pigment: a finely ground, insoluble powder which contributes color to a coating – usually very color fast
Pinholeing: the appearance of numerous small holes in a film, usually caused by bubbles due to heat drying of the coating
Primer: a coating which is first applied to a bare surface to make it smooth and help paint adhere to the surface
Reducer: to add solvent in order to thin a material to a workable thickness (viscosity)
Sanding Sealer: a lacquer formulated to give better filling and sandability than the topcoat lacquer
Substrate: the surface or material to be coated
Transparent: clear enough to see through
Translucent: allows light to pass through but not clear enough to see through
Viscosity: the thickness of a coating material in its liquid form
Volatile: the solvent portion of a coating
Washcoat: very thin coat of shellac or sealer

Stone Jargon

Amethyst: transparent purple stone, sometimes with inclusions. Hues range from lavender to deep regal purple.
Aventurine: green or blue semi-translucent to mostly opaque stone with mica flecks that cause a slight metallic iridescence
Black Onyx: a black opaque stone
Bloodstone: dark green opaque stone with red spotting
Blue Lace Agate: light blue translucent stone with white or milky banding
Cape Amethyst
(Amethyst Quartz):
translucent light to medium purple stone with white banding
Carnelian: orange to bright red-orange translucent stone
Clear Quartz
(Rock Crystal):
a colorless transparent stone
Fancy Jasper: an opaque multi-colored stone; colors are muted and range from green-blue to pinkish to orange-yellow frequently in the same stone
Fluorite: a transparent stone; green and purple with clear areas or bands
Garnet: a transparent stone ranging in color from light red to darkish plum red
Hematite: a silvery, shiny opaque stone that almost looks like metal
Iolite: a transparent blue-violet stone; the lighter colors show more of the violet hue
Lapis Lazuli: a dark, royal blue opaque stone with white veins or patches called calcite and a few gold-looking metallic flecks called pyrite
Malachite: an opaque, banded stone; the colors in the bands range from a very light green to almost black
Moonstone: a translucent milky stone with a little iridescence; can be found in several colors, most common are whitish-clear, grey, and light peach
Moss Agate: not an agate, strictly speaking, but a chalcedony. Semi-transparent to opaque, mostly a variety of green tones with a little white or clear
Natural Carnelian: a light to medium orange translucent stone, frequently with areas of lighter and darker orange for a banded or mottled look
Natural Onyx: a semi-translucent to opaque, light colored stone with some banding found in varying degrees of yellowish-white, pale greenish-white, and grey
Picture Jasper: a tan, opaque stone with medium and dark brown patches
Poppy Jasper: opaque with colors of brick red, whites, browns and blacks
Red Jasper: an opaque, mostly red stone
Rhodochrosite: a medium to light pink opaque stone with cream or creamy-pink banding
Rhodonite: a pink, opaque stone from medium pink to dusty rose, often with black inclusions
Rose Quartz: a pink transparent stone, sometimes leaning toward translucent, or with inclusions
Smokey Quartz: a brown transparent stone; color ranges from very slightly brown to dark
Tiger’s Eye: an opaque brown stone, with bands of darker brown and golden-yellow
Unakite: an opaque stone variegated with shades of green and pink, sometimes with a little russet or red
White Marble: an opaque stone with a little metallic shimmer to it
White Onyx: a semi-translucent white to slightly yellowish-white stone that sometimes has an opaque white banding
White Quartz: a translucent white stone with varying degrees of opacity having some areas of cloudiness

Soap Making Glossary

Abrasives: Gritty or rough substances, which are added to soap to help scrub away dirt or dead outer skin cells. Also helps remove excess oils from skin. Also considered an exfoliant. Avoid with delicate or dry skin types.
Absolute: Products, not strictly essential oils, obtained through chemical solvent extraction.
Allergy/Allergic: Hypersensitivity or reaction caused by a substance or ingredient.
Anti-oxidants: Ingredient that retards the deterioration of the soap and prevents natural/fresh ingredients from combining with oxygen and becoming rancid.
Antiseptics: Ingredients that inhibit the growth of bacteria on living tissue or in soap.
Astringents: Substances or additives to soap that tighten or close skin pores. The effect makes skin feel smoother.
Aromatherapy: Using scents or essential oils to affect mental or physical well being of person.
Aromatherapy Benefit: The emotional or physical effect evoked by aromatic essential including balance, energy, rejuvenation, cleansing, deodorizing and purifying.
Aroma/aromatic: Having scent, flavor or taste
Blenders: Additional scents that are combined with a main scent to enhance and fix the scents into a single blended fragrance.
Botanical Name: Refers to the Latin name of the plant in the biological classification system. A botanical name is composed of the genus followed by the species.
Carrier Oil: An oil base in which essential oils are diluted to create massage blends and body care products. A carrier oil has little or no scent.
Dermal: Pertaining to the skin.
Disinfectant: Prevents or combats the spread of germs.
Enfleurage: Age-old method of extracting essential oils using odorless fats and oils to absorb the oil from the plant material.
Essential Oil: Highly concentrated, volatile, aromatic essences of plants.
Emollients: Additives that soften skin.
Expression: Method of obtaining essential oil from plant material, such as citrus fruit peel. The complete oil is physically forced from the plant material. Also known as cold press extraction.
Extraction Method: The method by which essential oils are separated from the plant. Common extraction methods include distillation, expression and solvent extraction.
Fillers: Ingredients that add bulk or extend a soap.
Fixatives: Ingredients that stabilize volatile oils and prevent them from evaporating too quickly.
Food Grade: Safe for use in food by the Food and Drug Administration.
Fragrance Oil: Fragrances and scents derived by synthetic means.
Herbal: Pertaining to natural botanicals and living plants.
Holistic: A natural approach to healing outside Western medicine conventions.
Homeopathy: Therapy using plant, animal and mineral substances in dilutions to overcome illness by stimulating the body’s natural immunity.
Hydrating: Restoring or maintaining normal proportion of fluid in the body or skin.
Insoluble: Unable to be dissolved in a liquid such as water.
Irritant: Substance or material that produces irritation or inflammation of the skin.
Main Scent: Dominant scent to which other scents can be added to create a new single blended scent.
Nervine: Strengthening or toning the nerves or nervous system.
Olfactory: Relating to or connected with the sense of smell.
Potpourri: Fragrant mixture of dried herbs and flowers. Usually scented with synthetic fragrance oils.
Relaxant: Ingredient that is soothing, relieving strain or tension.
Refrigerant: Ingredient that cools inflammation or eases muscle pain.
Sedative: Ingredient that reduces functional activity or calms.
Single Note: Pure, 100% natural essential oil: no additives; no adulterations.
Soluble: Able to be dissolved in a liquid such as water.
Stimulant: Ingredient or substance that temporarily speeds the functional activity of a human tissue.
Synergistic: Characteristic in which the total effect is more effective than the individual parts.
Synergistic Blend: Combination of multiple essential oils that produce a completely new aroma with a different therapeutic effect.
Synthetic: Artificially produced substance designed to imitate that which occurs naturally.
Rendering: Impurities in animal fats are removed during this process over heat creating tallow which is pure fat used in soap making.
Viscosity: Pertaining to the thickness or thinness of a liquid.
Volatile: Essential oils that evaporate very easily or quickly. Fixatives stabilize oils and result in a longer lasting scent.
Volatilization: Rate of evaporation or oxidation of an essential oil.
Wild: Growing spontaneously, not cultivated.

Types of Paper

Acetate: not a paper per say, but often used as a surface. A thin, flexible sheet of transparent plastic used to make overlays
Acid Free Paper: has no free acid, or a pH of at least 6.5. The use of a synthetic sizing material allows the paper to be manufactured with a neutral or alkaline pH
Acid Sized Paper: manufactured under acid conditions having no surface buffering capacity
Board Paper: grade of paper commonly used for file folders, displays, and post cards
Bond Paper: grade of paper commonly used for writing, printing, and photocopying
Book Paper: grade of paper suitable for books, magazines, and general printing needs
Bristol Paper: type of board paper used for post cards, business cards, and other heavy-use products. Some types of Bristol are referred to as Vellum Bristol, but are not true translucent vellum
Buffered Paper: made in an acid environment and then buffered on the surface to obtain a required pH
C1S: paper coated on one side
C2S: paper coated on both sides
Cardboard Paper: general term for stiff, bulky paper such as index, tag, or Bristol
Corrugated Paper: fluted paper between sheets of paper or cardboard or the fluted paper by itself
Cotton Content Paper: made from cotton fibers rather than wood pulp
Dry Gum Paper: label paper or sheet of paper with glue that can be activated by water
Enamel Paper: another term for Coated paper with gloss finish
Handmade Paper: sheet of paper, made individually by hand using a mold and deckle
Index Paper: light weight board paper for writing and easy erasure
Laid Paper: paper with a prominent pattern of ribbed lines in the finished sheet. It is accomplished in handmade paper using a screen-like mold of closely set parallel horizontal wires, crossed at right angles by vertical wires spaced somewhat further apart
Machine Made Paper: sheet of paper produced on a rapidly moving machine called the Fourdrinier, which forms, dries, sizes and smoothes the sheet; uniformity of size and surface texture marks the machine-made sheet
Manila Paper: strong, buff-colored paper used to make envelopes and file folders
Mold Made Paper: sheet of paper that simulates a handmade sheet in look, but is made by a slowly rotating machine called a cylinder-mould; the machine was introduced in England in 1895
Parchment: paper that simulates writing surfaces made from animal skins
Rag Paper: paper made from fibers of non-wood origin, including actual cotton rags, cotton linters, cotton or linen pulp. Rag papers contain from 25-100% cotton fiber pulp
Rice Paper: common misnomer applied to lightweight Oriental papers; rice alone cannot produce a sheet of paper so rice (straw) is only occasionally mixed with other fibers in papermaking; the name may be derived from the rice size once used in Japanese papermaking
Shrink Medium: not a paper per say, but a sheet of thin clear or opaque plastic that once heated shrinks in size
Specialty Paper: term for carbonless, pressure-sensitive, synthetic, and other papers made for special applications
Synthetic paper: plastic or other petroleum-based paper
Tissue Paper: thin, translucent, lightweight papers available in many colors
Waterleaf Paper: paper with little or no sizing, like blotter, making it very absorbent; if dampening is desired, this paper can be sprayed with an atomizer
Wove Paper: paper with a uniform unlined surface and smooth finish, generally made on a European style mould with a woven wire surface
Vellum: stiff, translucent paper available in clear, white, marbled, colored or embossed
Velveteen Paper: also called plush or suede paper; paper with velvet feel and nap

Paper Jargon

Acidity: a state of a substance that contains acid. Paper become acidic from the ingredients used in its manufacture, from the environment or both
Alum: astringent crystalline substance used in rosin sizing to hold paper fibers together and responsible for introducing acid into the paper
Basic Size: standard size of each grade of paper used to calculate basis weight
Basis Weight: weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to the basic size for its grade
Bast Fibers: refers to a group of fibers commonly used in Japanese papermaking, including flax, gampi, hemp, jute, kozo and mitsumata
Brightness: characteristic of paper referring to how much light it reflects
Buffering: process that gradually neutralizes a paper’ s acidity by adding an alkaline substance, like calcium carbonate, at the pulp stage. Buffering helps reduce the acidity of paper over time
Coated Paper: papers with a finish, glossy or matte. Accepts most inks, markers, and colored pencil, but pigment ink must be embossed
Cold Pressed: mildly textured surfaces produced by pressing the paper through unheated rollers. Generally considered to be a surface between rough and hot pressed
Cut Stock: paper distributor term for paper 11 x 17 or smaller
Deckle: wood frame resting on or hinged to the edges of the mold that defines the edges of the sheet in handmade papermaking. Also strap or board on the wet end of a paper machine that determines the width of the paper web
Deckle Edge: natural, fuzzy edges of handmade papers, simulated in mould-made and machine-made papers by a jet stream of water while the paper is still wet. Handmade papers have 4 deckle edges, while mold-made and machine-made papers usually have two
Dull Finish: characteristic of paper that reflects relatively little light
Durability: degree to which paper retains its original qualities with use
Fibers: slender, thread-like cellulose structures that cohere to form a sheet of paper
Filler: generic term to describe the nonoxidizing clays or minerals added to the pulp at the beater stage to improve paper density
Finishing: term used to describe the cutting, sorting, trimming and packing of paper
Gampi: blast fiber from the gampi tree used in Japanese papermaking to yield a translucent, strong sheet
Gm/m2: metric measure of weight for artist papers. It compares the weights [in grams] of different papers, each occupying one square meter of space, irrespective of individual sheet dimensions. Another way of comparing paper weights is pounds per ream. A 140 lb. paper indicates that a ream [500 sheets] of that particular paper weights 140 lbs
Gloss: characteristic of paper, ink, or varnish that reflects relatively large amounts of light
Grade: one of seven major categories of paper: bond, uncoated book, coated book, text, cover, board, and specialty
Grain: the direction in which fibers are aligned
Grain Direction: direction in which the fibers of machine-made paper lie due to the motion of the machine. When machine-made paper is moistened, the fibers swell more across their width than along their length, so the paper tends to expand at right angles to the machine direction. Handmade and mold-made papers have indistinguishable grain directions
Grain long or grain short: paper whose fibers parallel the long or short dimension of the sheet.
High Alpha: nearly pure form of wood pulp which has the same potential longevity in paper as cotton, linen or other natural fiber
Hot Pressed: smooth, glazed surfaces produced by pressing the paper through hot rollers after formation of the sheet
Kozo: most common fiber used in Japanese papermaking, it comes from the mulberry tree. This is a long, tough fiber that produces strong absorbent sheets
Linter: general term for preprocessed pulp, cotton or wood, purchased in sheet form. Cotton linters are fibers left on the seed after the long fibers have been removed for textile use. They are too short to be spun into cloth but can be cooked and made into paper. Stiffer and more brittle than long-fibered cotton, linters produce a low-shrinkage pulp good for paper casting. They cannot produce a paper with the strength of cotton rag. Wood linters are called hardwood or softwood depending on grade
Mitsumata: bast fiber used in Japanese papermaking that yields a soft, absorbent and lustrous quality
Mold: tool for hand-papermaking, it is a flat screen that filters an even layer of fibers through it to form the sheet. In western papermaking, it is accompanied with a wooden frame called a deckle
Opacity: characteristic of paper that helps prevent printing on one side from showing on the other
Permanence: degree to which paper resists deterioration over time
pH: measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of water solution and substance, denoting acid or alkaline A paper’s pH is measured on a scale from one to fourteen. Seven is neutral. Numbers higher than seven are alkaline and numbers lower than seven are acidic. Papers with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5 are generally considered neutral
Plate Finish: smooth surface found on paper that has been run under a calender machine one or more times
Ply: single web of paper, used by itself or laminated onto one or more additional webs as it is run through the paper machine
Pulp: general term describing the beaten, wet mixture of stock used in making paper, whether its contents are wood, cotton or other fibers
Rags: processed clippings of new cotton remnants from the garment industry for use in high quality papers.
Rough: heavily textured surfaces produced by minimal pressing after sheet formation
Size: material, such as rosin, glue, gelatin, starch, modified cellulose, etc. added to the stock at the pulp stage, or applied to the surface of the paper when dry, to provide resistance to liquid penetration
Sulfite: term for pulp made from wood. Depending on how it is processed for papermaking, it can either be acidic or neutral pH
Surface-Sized: term applied to a paper whose surface has been treated with a sizing material after the sheet is dry or semi-dry
Uncoated Paper: papers with a higher absorbency rate that coated papers and easier to use with most inks, markers, watercolors, and colored pencils
Watermark: design applied to the surface of the paper mold, which causes less pulp to be distributed in that area and results in the transfer of the design to the finished sheet
Web: continuous ribbon of paper, in its full width, during any stage of its progress though the paper machine
Wet Strength: strength of a sheet of paper after it is saturated with water
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